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Joe Armstrong - Erlang and other things

How to make an efficient payment system in Erlang

Making a payment system is like playing a Chopin Waltz - and involves a universal method of problem solving which can be applied to any probem.

The other day I was send a rather nice mail by a young programmer who was learning Erlang, and wanted to know if Erlang was suitable for building a financial payments site. He was attracted to Erlang because he'd read that Erlang was a good choice of language for making highly concurrent fault tolerant applications, and was happily reading my book.

My answer to his question, is pretty much the same as my answer to all questions of the form “is X suitable to program Y?” I thought I'd answer it here, so as to avoid answering the same question multiple times.

When solving problems solve the most difficult problem first

It's really important to know what the most difficult problem you will encounter when solving a problem. If you can't solve the most difficult problem you'll be stuck when you get to it.

The general method for solving all problems is:

  • Find the most difficult outstanding problem
  • Solve it
  • Repeat this until the only remaining problems are trivial - and you know you can solve them.

    The problem with this method is that you probably don't know what the most difficult problem is when you start. If you did know you would be the expert. You would be the person who had built and succeeded making a super-duper financial payments system.

    To find out what the most difficult problem is easy:

    Ask an expert what the most difficult problem is.

    Finding an expert is probably the most difficult part of this exercise.

    What happens if you don't know an expert?

    If you don't personally know an expert then do some research and find out who the experts are and mail them.

    In my experience a polite and friendly mail to an expert has about a fifty percent chance of getting a helpful reply. Most experts worthy of the name are glad to share their knowledge since it gives then an opportunity to explain whatever it is that they are experts in. Many interesting conversations start this way.

    What are the difficult problems in a payment system?

    On a couple of occasions I found myself talking to people who had personally built large scale financial payment systems so I asked them what the most difficult problems were and got two answers:

  • Satisfying the regulatory authorities, and,
  • Interacting with legacy systems
  • Regulation in financial systems is vital. Financial transactions have to be approved by regulatory authorities. It is not enough that the software is correct and performant. You must be able to satisfy the regulatory authorities that the software is doing the right thing and obeying all the regulations.

    Financial systems do not live in isolated worlds, they interact with legacy systems written in archaic languages and with bizarre and poorly documented protocols. Interacting with the world as it is, and not how we would like it to be is a huge problem.

    Funnily enough - both experts did not mention performance as a problem - actually virtually nobody mentions performance as a problem - if the software actually works (which is often viewed as a miracle, since most projects are canceled because the software never actually works) and is slow, the usually solution is just to “throw more machines at it”.

    Performance is not a problem unless you have billions of users, and certainly not a problem you will meet on day one. If you get to the point where performance is a problem, then your project will have come a long long way. Your most difficult problem will be getting the system to work at all, and then finding a few people brave enough to use it.

    I always have to say that any programming language can be used to solve a problem - this is what computer scientists call “Turing equivalence” so if you can solve your problem in HorribleTran9 you will also be able to solve it in SuperNifty2.

    Having said that, solving the same problem in different programming languages is not equally difficult - what is hard in one language can be simple in another and vice versa.

    Erlang is a good choice if your hard problem is to make something fault-tolerant. Erlang was designed for building fault-tolerant systems and surprise surprise, that's what it just happens to be good at, this is not by accident but by design.

    Erlang is useless for making GUIs, number crunching and watering flowers. Choose another technology for this.

    The general method of solving problems by choosing the hardest problem and solving it first is applicable to many problems.

    What's this got to do with Chopin?

    I'm currently learning to play Chopin's Waltz Opus 64 Number 2 in C# minor.

    What I started my music teacher quickly pointed to bar 4. He said “learn this bar first, watch a load of YouTube videos, 20 minutes a day should sort it.”

    My immediate thought was that 20 minutes a day was a bit over the top - it's only 16 notes. If I practice 20 mintes a day for a week that 140 minutes ie 8 minutes per note.

    But I did what he said and recorded The Vladimirs Ashkenazy and Horowitz, and a few others for comparison purposes. After a while I found I could play bar 4 as well as the Vladimirs.

    I was childishly delighted about this - I could play bar 4 as well as Ashkenazy, only another 191 bars to go. The next bit my teacher identified was the Più Mosso starting at bar 33 - which Horowitz, said to be the world best pianist, murders by playing too fast. I certainly can't play this at Horowitz's tempo - but at a speed that surprises my brain - my hands and fingers now move at speeds that my brain cannot understand.

    Just for comparison, here is Horowitz vs. Dyson.

  • Horowitz (38 seconds in)
  • Dyson (1min 08 seconds in)
  • Horwoitz total time is 3:13 is against Dyson's 4:53 (I suspect Horowitz's reputation came from a time when virtuosity was defined as being “how fast you could play” I much prefer more modern (and slower) interpretations.

    Then there was Più Lento (bars 65 onwards) - which I just didn't get - the melody shifts between the left and right hands in subtly beautiful manner

    Then bar 84.

    Eight notes in the left hand against three in the left. “You've got to be joking Mr Chopin.”

    My theory is that Chopin threw a musical wobbly here and had reached the limit of what could be notated so he just vaguely indicated what he wanted. Just make sure the three notes in the base sing out and that your left and right hand fingers arrive in time to play the first chord in the next bar on time. Not too difficult, but definitely not a straight 8 against 3 tempo.

    The rest is easy (well it's not actually, it's technically easy but still needs attention to detail).

    Learning to play Chopin involves exactly the same mental discipline as building a complex software system.
  • First Identify the most difficult outstanding problem
  • Solve this
  • Iterate until there are no more difficult problems.

    Solve all the remaining problems, paying attention to detail and quality control.

    When finished run though everything polishing parts that are sub-standard.

    I can now play all of the Opus 64 - but not without the music. The basic work is done, now the polish must be applied.

    Tell me the bad

    Once your work is nearing perfection it's now vital to know what's wrong with it. My music teacher does this. Last week I played the Opus 64 from beginning to end. It was first time I'd done this. When I was done he had several comments; the right hand tricky bits were OK but some of the chords in the left hand were fumbled or wrong - I needed to know this.

    In the West there is a culture of praise and encouragement and it certainly would not be a good idea to criticize beginners for every mistake they make. But at a certain point encouragement must be changed to criticism. Encouragement is fine to get you started, but not sufficient to achieve perfection.

    I noticed this years ago, the transition from a schoolkid to undergraduate and then PhD student involved being subject to more and more criticism and less and less praise.

    The thing to remember about criticism is that it's not about you. It's not about you it's about your work and the purpose is to improve your work. How you receive criticism is important. If you perceive it as an attack you will reject it. If you perceive it as a way to improve what you're doing then you'll find it helpful.

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