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Immediate brain plasticity after one hour of braincomputer interface (BCI) - Nierhaus - - The Journal of Physiology - Wiley Online Library

A braincomputerinterface (BCI), proposed for the first time by Vidal (Vidal, 1973 ), translates brain activity that reflects the subject's intention into control commands for a device, bypassing the physiological motor output system. An important component of BCIs is the neurofeedback that users receive from the system. It allows participants to modify their neural activity patterns to attain and improve BCI control. Unlike other skills, a BCI system is controlled by direct modification of brain signals, making BCI an unusual cognitive experience.