I think one of the reasons why CMS works fine, while not relocating the objects in "tenured" generation, is that it has the copying "young" collection that at least makes attempt to compact before committing to particular object order in "tenured". STW collectors like Serial and Parallel(Old) reap the benefits of this for almost every collection. Regionalized collectors like G1 and Shenandoah can, should, and will exploit this too — although substantially more work is needed there because heap traversals are decoupled from evacuation. It would be audacious to claim locality does not matter. Enter NUMA, where locality penalties skyrocket, and be prepared to get royally screwed.