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The Elusive Calculus of Insects Altruism and Kin Selection | Quanta Magazine

But there were problems. Even though the haplodiploidy hypothesis is still associated with the study of evolved social behaviors, it has been out of favor with experts since 1976, when Robert Trivers and Hope Hare showed how males factor into relatedness. While haplodiploid females are more closely related to their sisters than to their offspring, they still share more genes with their offspring than with their brothers ( r is ). The evolutionary burden of raising low-value brothers would therefore offset the advantages of rearing high-value sisters.